What do sedge warblers look like?

Sedge warblers have an olive-brown mantle and scapulars with dark brown streaks, and a cinnamon rump. On the upperwing the flight feathers are brown with pale buff edges, and the wing coverts are black with paler edges. The rounded tail is dark brown.

The belly is white, the flanks are pale rust and the rest of the underparts are cream or pale buff. On the underwing the axillaries and coverts are white with dark centres.

On the head the chin and throat are white, and the crown is dark with fine streaks. There is a conspicuous pale buff supercilium that extends from the upper base of the bill to the end of the ear coverts where it becomes broader. The lores are dark, and the cheeks and ear coverts are yellowish-brown. The bill has a dark brown upper mandible and yellow lower mandible with a pink base, the eyes are dark brown, and the legs and feet are grey-brown. Male and female sedge warblers are similar.

Juveniles are yellower than adults but with a similar pattern on the body and slight speckles or streaks on the breast. On the head there is a buff stripe in the centre of the crown.

How do sedge warblers breed?

Sedge warblers are monogamous and breed between late April and mid-May and produce 1 or 2 broods a season. The nest in scrubby vegetation, marshes, bushes, and reedbeds near but not on water. It is usually supported on stems. The female builds the nest which is a deep cup-shaped structure made from loosely woven grass, stems, leaves, moss, and sedges, bound together with spider webs. It is lined with softer plant material, hair, and plant down.

Sedge warblers lay 5-6 smooth, glossy, pale green eggs even covered with fine olive specks and mottles, which are incubated by the female alone for 13-15 days. The male will help brood the chicks once they are hatched. Chicks leave the nest 11-12 days after hatching and fledge at 25-30 days.

What do sedge warblers eat?

Sedge warblers eat mainly insects including mayflies, dragonflies, grasshoppers, moths, and beetles. They will also eat worms, slugs, snails, and spiders. In autumn and winter it will supplement its diet with plant matter such as berries, fruit, buds, and flowers.

They usually feed at dawn and dusk in low, dense vegetation.

Extract taken from ‘Bird Spot’

Images by CRUSH Photography© www.crush.photography

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Acknowledgements: Extract taken from 'Bird Spot'

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Fallow Deer

The male fallow deer is known as a buck, the female is a doe, and the young a fawn. They were first brought to Britain from the western Mediterranean during the Roman period, when they were kept within enclosures known as ‘vivaria’.

Variation in Colour

Much variation occurs in the coat colour of the species, with four main variants: common, menil, melanistic, and leucistic. They prefer to graze grasses although they will take trees and dwarf shrub shoots in autumn and winter.

All Images by CRUSH Photography©

Only bucks have antlers, which are broad and shovel-shaped (palmate) from three years. In the first two years, the antler is a single spike. Groups of adult males and females, usually with young, remain apart for most of the year in large woodlands, only coming together to breed.

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Acknowledgements: Extracts from The British Deer Societ more...

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Habitat

The fieldfare a migratory bird, is typically a winter visitor from Scandinavia. They are seen on farmland with large hedges, scrub and woodland laden with berries. In late winter they will feed on grassland and field margins. Mixed farming systems are most suited to the fieldfare as they provide the range of habitats which they require. 

Food

Their diet predominantly consists of berries, fallen fruit, worms, slugs and sometimes grain. Winter foraging will include earthworms, wireworm and leatherjackets

Song/Call

“Schack-schack-schack”- Usually a furious chatter, their song is simple with a few chattering, fast notes.

Beneficial Management of Migratory Bird

‘Fieldfare’
  • Allow specific hedge lines (those with a high percentage of thorn species) to grow on untrimmed for several years with the aim of providing a profusion of berries for winter feeding.
  • Establish extended field margins around arable fields. These will provide additional habitat, but also allow more sympathetic timing of hedge cutting.
  • Maintain a mosaic of mixed cropping across the farm.
  • Permanent pasture with short grass sward, either being grazed or recently grazed will provide an ideal feeding ground.
  • Fieldfare will also forage on over-wintering arable crops and stubbles if these fields have high earthworm numbers.

All Images by CRUSH Photography©

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Acknowledgements: Extracts taken from 'Game & Wildlife more...

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The goldcrest is a tiny bird. Adults typically weigh just 5g, which is the same as a 20p coin. On average, goldcrests are slightly lighter than the similarly diminutive, and closely related, firecrest. This makes the species the UK’s smallest bird.

Goldcrests are named after the crest of bright feathers in the middle of their head. This is completely yellow on females, but has an orange centre on males. The rest of the plumage is mainly green-brown.

Not to be confused with: the firecrest. It has a distinct black stripe around the eye, but this can be hard to see on a moving bird. However, firecrests are much rarer than goldcrests and are predominantly found in southern England.

Images taken by CRUSH Photography©

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Acknowledgements: Extract taken from the Woodland Trust

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